This dissertation examines how Latin American immigrants in Argentina identify in terms of national identity and whether these identifications impact their possibilities for social and political participation in the receiving country. It centers on leaders of civil society organizations that come from neighbouring countries. Firstly it examines both public policy and discourses on migration in Argentina in the context of debates about immigration, from the end of the nineteenth century to the present. Secondly it describes the emergence of social networks among Paraguayan, Bolivian and Chilean migrants and analyse their reaction to the policies and discourses described. Thirdly it explores the question of national identity construction from the perspective of the leaders of civil institutions. Finally, it draws conclusions about the dynamics of acceptance and rejection of other Latin Americans in Argentina; about whether they are perceived –or perceive themselves- as being “integrated” (or not)into the national project and identity; and about whether the idea of Argentina as a nation of immigrants is nothing more than a myth.