Soil fertility management continually requires incorporation of organic matter, including organic carbon, into soils which is achievable through litter decomposition followed by constant release of nutrients contained in the plant biomass. Nutrient enrichment of the soil creates a healthy environment for the soil fauna and flora to thrive to the amelioration of soil fertility status vital for the sustainable productiveness of food production systems. Soil fertility is a function of the soil organisms, the micro-, meso- and macro-fauna and flora inhabiting the soil ecosystem. Life processes going on in the soil ecosystem facilitate nutrient uptake by the plants, thus enhancing the productivity of the producers and improving the overall functioning of an agro-ecosystem to be pronounced in sustainably high yields of foods necessary for human wellbeing. This volume discusses decomposition and dynamics of nutrient release in agroforestry systems in the Tarai area of Central Himalayas. Agroforestry systems are ecologically more stable than the croplands without trees. The book would be highly useful for all those concerned with the state of agro-ecosystems and sustainable agriculture.