Recent research in the field of neuroscience, particularly on the brain, has provided convincing evidence of the ‘critical periods’ located within these early years for the forming of synaptic connections in the brain and for the fullest development of the brain’s potential. Research has also indicated that if these early years are not supported by, or embedded in a stimulating and enriching physical and psychosocial environment, the chances of the child’s brain developing to its full potential are considerably, and often irreversibly, reduced. From the review of the related literature of India, it was revealed that very few studies have been taken relating to ECCEC/Anganwadies. It is also noted that attempt was made in some studies to compare and evaluate the existing curriculum and the programmes of ECCEC. No any study attempted to study the impact of pre-schooling on the learning achievement and cognitive and motor skill development of the children. Therefore, the authors made an attempt in this direction through the study of the role of pre-schooling on the learning achievement and cognitive and motor skill development of the primary school children.