Crops are steadily and increasingly regarded as human health inducers, thus revolutionizing their roles in human ecology, especially form biotechnological and medicinal perspectives. As such, more emphasis is placed on links between plant chemicals with post-modern human and animal health. Such therapeutics include but are not limited to pharmaceuticals, multi-constituent botanical drugs, dietary supplements, functional foods and plant-derived recombinant proteins and vaccines. These compounds could complement conventional pharmaceuticals for cure, prognosis and diagnosis of diseases, while offering chances to optimize animal agriculture. This book is an extracted collection of recent advancememts in legume biapharmaceutical sciences with a special emphasis on alfalfa.