At the time of this research, there were an estimated 40.5 million people living with HIV globally, 17.5 million of whom were women (UNAIDS & WHO, 2005). Women are vulnerable to HIV for biologic as well as social reasons. In the past, the HIV prevention theorists have not considered the context of women''s lives; factors at the individual, relationship, and community levels, as well as structural factors (both policy and cultural) impact on HIV prevention for women. This is particularly true for migrant women, who may be especially vulnerable to HIV infection during their time of transition. Throughout this book the author explores the international literature for both the historical context of HIV prevention for women, and the impact of migration on HIV risk for women. The literature review provides a basis for the development of a conceptual framework of the socio-ecologic factors affecting HIV prevention for migrant women. The author calls for consideration of the broad context of women''s experience when developing interventions for this population.