This study was conducted in an attempt to integrate a number of cognitive, motivational and behavioral factors in elementary mathematics education, and to develop a theoretical model that explains the direct and indirect relationships among these concepts and their underlying dimensions. In particular, it was intended to examine the interrelationships among students’ achievement goal orientations, perception of classroom goal structure, self-efficacy, use of self-regulatory strategies, and academic achievement in mathematics. Results revealed that students’ perceptions of classroom goal structure were directly linked to their adoption of achievement goal orientations. Among these goal orientations, only mastery goal orientation was associated with students’ use of learning strategies, which, in turn, related to their mathematics achievement. Among the learning strategies, only elaboration was significantly related to students’ mathematics achievement. Besides, self-efficacy was both directly and indirectly related to students’ adoption of achievement goals, use of learning strategies, and mathematics achievement.