The need for awareness of and commitment to conservation of biodiversity has never been more crucial than now. Knowing the need for integration of social, ecological and economical factors interrelation between them was studied Patihani Buffer Zone Village Development Committee (VDC) of Chitwan National Park. Household survey, focus group discussions, key informants interview, vegetation plotting in random points, GIS, and secondary data were used to gather quantitative information on socio-economic, ecological factors, vegetation and rhino conservation. Socio-economic condition of more than half population in Patihani VDC was considered doable. Dependency on the park resources was higher comparing to community forest. The implementation of buffer zone in the VDC benefited with the development (of infrastructure like road, irrigation, bio-gas plant, users groups cooperatives), and conservation of natural resources (through the awareness, prohibiting the use of park resources, controlling poaching, compensation to crop loss). This study was supported by Resources Himalaya Foundation (RHF), Nepal.