Oral Exfoliative Cytology is a cost effective and perhaps the best procedure for the initial evaluation and diagnosis of oral lesions. It is simple, safe and reliable, especially in population-based screening programs, where repeated samples might be required.Liquid-based cytology, since its inception in the 1990s, has shown significant advantages over conventional exfoliative cytology. Studies in cervical cytology have shown that the LBC reduces the problems related to sampling and preparation of better smears. Blood, inflammation and mucus are reduced and cells are distributed randomly throughout the slide. The clear background thus obtained enhances sensitivity and quality. As compared to conventional smears, the use of liquid-based preparations has shown to greatly reduce the number of slides that are unsatisfactory, or satisfactory but limited by specimen artifacts, diminishing the false negative results.The book highlights the role of liquid based cytology in oral lesions and its comparison with conventional brush cytology.