Literacy development is a major concern in early childhood education. During the kindergarten year, children are expected to learn to read and write. This study examines current literacy instruction in kindergarten classrooms and the relationship between these practices and kindergarten student literacy outcomes. Quantitative measures of classroom practices and quantitative child literacy outcomes were used to examine this relationship. Individual student characteristics of gender, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, home language, and home literacy environment were also considered in relationship to student literacy outcomes. Data analysis suggested that classroom instructional practices were not related to student literacy outcomes, while student characteristics of socioeconomic status and home literacy environment appeared to be the most significant predictors of student literacy achievement. These outcomes indicate that school and home partnerships are the most effective means of positively impacting literacy development.