This book is about a critical look of the interactions between livelihood and environment (Ecology) and an assessment of the role that the new concept and practice permaculture can play through an assessment of the practice in Konso woreda of Ethiopia. In doing so the book begins with background of the issue by stating global nature of the problem, then comes to country wise of the issue where the study focused and consequently to research area specific. Based on the issues discussed in the background part the research problem was stated. The objectives of the research were also set and the related research questions articulated to meet the research objectives. Important literatures related to environment, livelihood and Permaculture which are believed important to the study were also reviewed. Descriptions of the study area and methodology used for the study are also stated. Data were discussed and analyzed through selected approaches, specifically livelihood and sustainable agriculture approaches. Lastly conclusion and recommendations are provided.