The book addresses the overarching concern of agricultural land scarcity, the livelihood strategies arisen from that and the positive and negative trade-offs of these strategies on sustainable use of natural resources. It reveals that the majority of agricultural land scarce and landless peasants are still predominantly pursuing agricultural livelihood strategies through agricultural intensification, extensification, and diversification. Moreover, they engaged in ranges of non-agricultural strategies and seasonally migrate outside their village to generate additional income. Consequently, while agricultural intensification and extensification adversely affect the natural resource base at current level of farm technologies, the desirable outcomes of agricultural livelihood diversification, non-agricultural activities, and seasonal migration outweigh their negative aspects. Thus, this book is useful for the consumption of researchers, policy makers and development practitioners engaged in promoting sustainable rural livelihood of the land scarce peasants and sound natural resource management.