Livestock products comprise an important component of agricultural production in the Nile River Basin, which supports more than 200 million lives in its riparian countries where most of them are found in poverty. Despite this fact, it has largely been ignored in water management for food security. Livestock production interacts with the water resources directly or indirectly and the interaction can be positive or negative depending on the type of production. Evidences suggest that there is a huge knowledge gap and much misinformation about livestock’s use of and impact on water resources. This book tries to answer the questions that what type of interaction exists in the Nile River Basin and how much is the productivity of the water for livestock production. This book should be useful for any level researchers and professionals in environment, livestock, agriculture and similar fields.