The book targets the community of students, researchers and practitioners who intend to use machine vision in diversified real-life problems. Nevertheless, its content has been deliberately limited to a certain category of solutions. The main objective is to overview a range of techniques and algorithms that have been proven successful in applications where the LOCAL approaches are an important factor. Such approaches may range from spatially constrained image acquisition to the local methods in visual information retrieval. The book is focused on theories and solutions related to the author’s personal research experiences over many years of his career. Nevertheless, it is not a typical monographic publication. The individual chapters are deliberately written as nearly self-contained units so that readers can selectively focus on the topics of their interest (and ignore the remaining parts of the book).