The social dimension of development studies has gained significance in recent decades. Civil society and social capital are, therefore, increasingly more examined as these concepts are widely discussed; and there are not many empirical country specific studies of them. Accordingly, this book focuses on local participation and social capital in women’s development projects in Turkey, with a central question revolving around the influence of internal vs. external financing on local participation in women’s development projects of NGOs. In order to examine the role of financing in local participation in women’s development projects, theoretical arguments focusing on development, civil society, women’s development and social capital are assessed to demonstrate the importance of local participation for sustainable development and women’s development projects for empowerment of women. Furthermore, an overview of Turkey’s history from the angle of civil society and women’s movement is presented to provide a background for the evolution of women’s NGOs and their work in Turkey. A sample of donors and externally and internally funded women’s development projects is selected as cases.