Early detection of air threats like aircrafts and missiles is becoming more and more important for advancing attack distance and response speed of modern hi-tech weapons in defence applications. These targets at longer ranges, typically 70 km or more, appear as point or small targets in visible and infrared image sequences. Because of the lack of apriori information about target dynamics and structural information such as shape, the detection of such targets becomes extremely challenging. Recently many algorithms for detection of point and small targets for airborne applications have been reported in the literature. It is found that most of these algorithms are unable to adapt their behaviour to perform robustly in the rapidly changing environment. Hence, a novel and robust long range target detection algorithm based on Adaptive Selective Double Structuring element Top-Hat Transform (Adapt-Sel-DSTHT) is discussed in this book. Experimental results show high probability of detection and low false alarms even for highly clouded scenario.The implementation detail of the robust long range target detection algorithm on PowerPC hardware has also been presented in this book.