The concept of human security has become a resilient part of Canadian foreign policy, and has guided Canada''s international role and legitimated the deployment of military forces abroad. This has been demonstrated with respect to Canada''s active involvement in the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan. However, as the war in Afghanistan has continued, increasing violence has raised questions about the effectiveness of international military efforts in protecting human security. This monograph examines Canada''s involvement in Afghanistan to determine whether it has been effective at promoting a narrowly defined conception of human security for the Afghan people. It finds that Canadian military policy and practice have been inconsistent with Canada''s stated policy towards human security, and that Canada and other international military actors have actually contributed to Afghan insecurity. This research suggests that better incorporation of human security principles into counterinsurgency practice is needed to improve Afghan human security.