Translational medicine is the base of biomedicine that promotes the value of investments and actualize the very revolution in modern science. Translational Research means different things to different people, but it seems crucial to almost everyone. This discipline, although defined differently in academia, regulatory institutions, and industry, shares the fundamental vision of Translational Medicine, which efficiently and effectively translates basic scientific findings relevant to human disease into knowledge that benefits patients. This book brings together descriptions about Translational Medicine to better understand what Translational Medicine is. It enhances conceptual and practical understanding of the emergence and progress of the field and its potential impact on basic research, therapeutic development, and institutional infrastructure. In recognition of the various implications TM has for public health policy and commercial innovation. The authors explore the dynamic interactions and key challenges.