Enlargement of lymph nodes is considered as a response of the normal immune system of an individual. Lymphadenopathy may be defined as an abnormality in the size or character of lymph nodes resulted from the invasion or propagation of either inflammatory cells or neoplastic cells into the lymph node. Cervical lymphadenopathy can occur in any age group, in symptomatic or asymptomatic patients. Lymphadenopathy is associated with numerous disorders and are common cause of swelling seen in the neck. In majority of the patients, cervical lymphadenopathy has a readily diagnosable infectious cause. Cervical lymphadenopathy nodes may also be a manifestation of underlying systemic disease,or related to malignancy in the drainage area. An abnormal lymph node may be noticed by the patient himself, found during clinical examination, or discovered while radiologic evaluation. This work presents the anatomical, pathophysiological and a systematic approach to a patient with cervical lymphadenopathy.