This book explores the application of mobile technologies for health in rural areas in developing countries, so as to provide reflections about the potential of the nascent m-health field. It sheds light on the gaps in the literature through a case study in two regions of Peru, but is not limited to this specific context and provides wider reflections on current topics of discussion in the field. A qualitative approach was used, including a combination of methods both in traditional face-to-face and online settings. The book highlights three important advantages of m-health in developing countries: the value of the immediacy in the communication for emergencies, the multimedia capabilities and the improved reliability of this technology. However, it also reflects on the recent limitations for their adoption and use in isolated communities, providing realistic considerations about the constraints of this potential for the poorest groups. Furthermore, it shows how the most relevant benefits of m-health in developing countries are derived from the ‘natural’ use of the technology among the population, rather than through externally conceptualised and driven m-health programmes.