Machine Translation has always been a challenging problem among the researchers. Work for the development of machine translation systems for Indian languages is still in infancy. Being a multi- lingual country, India needs such system for breaking the language barrier among Indian masses. Machine translation is not a trivial task by nature of translation process itself. But machine translation of closely related languages eases the task. Research in the field of machine translation of closely related languages faces major problems mainly related to the source text normalization, word sense disambiguation, transliteration, named entity recognition and transfer rules. The objective of this book is to addresses the problems in the various stages of the development of a direct machine translation system, keeping in view the language pair Punjabi and Hindi, and discusses potential solutions. This book should be especially useful to professionals and researchers who are doing research in Machine translation among closely related langauges.