The present study offers detailed analyzes of the effects of macroeconomic policies on the agricultural sector. It also presents a framework to understand how Rural Development Programs RDP) can help to reduce the negative effects of macroeconomic policy on the agricultural sector. To attain this objective we need to structure the analyzes within a context. For the present study, we will use macroeconomic adjustments as the context and the exchange rate and monetary policy as the macroeconomic tools. Moreover, we will concentrate our analysis on developing countries. Developing countries have experienced the most dramatic macroeconomic adjustments in the recent economic history, and most likely, they will continue to face structural instabilities that will require some adjustment.