Madhuca latifolia Macb. (Mahua) is one of the most important multipurpose forest trees of India. It is found in dry tropical and sub tropical climate over central and southern India.The wood is hard, heavy, strong and durable.The flowers are rich source of sugars and vitamins often used for manufacturing of country liquor and vinegar. This species widely exploited for its kernel fatty oil known as 'Mahua oil' or 'butter of commerce'. The oil content varies between 30% and 40%. The predominant Mahua growing areas of Tamil Nadu were inventoried for selection of phenotype with maximum oil content. Accordingly, 30 genotypes were identified with the maximum oil content of 52% and subjected to genetic analysis, biochemical and molecular characterization in order to validate the selection and further improvement for higher oil content.