Concern Worldwide, an International NGO, has worked in Zambia in partnership with the Mongu Farmers Association (MDFA) since 2002 to improve the livelihood security of men and women in rural Mongu district of Zambia. The book shows levels of women’s and men’s participation in the project regarding labour input and decision-making power, benefits enjoyed and the gender specific factors responsible. Women’s participation in Concern Worldwide project activities and enjoyment of benefits was lower compared to the men. Majority of men had access to information on project activities, run the project and earned high status and prestige in the community. The gendered outcomes are attributed to some cultural beliefs and attitudes in the community favourable to men but restrictive to women; gender imbalance and insensitivity in the executive committees; low education among women; lack of a gender mainstreaming strategy to address gender issues that constrained women’s participation; and poor communication skills among the MDFA leadership. The book recommends that organisations involved in livelihoods take a gender mainstreaming approach in implementing poverty reduction programmes.