The progress of Science and Technology (S&T) development in different parts of the world indicates that since national conditions are different, ways of developing S&T are different. Governments have implemented different policies to develop their S&T and serve their own social and economic requirements. National S&T policy-making, planning, and strategy have become the main way for a government to micro-guide and organize both economic and S&T activities. The international situation, as well as China’s national political structure, social economy, culture and social psychology have influenced government development strategies and related S&T planning and policy making. An important feature of governments in China is to devise policies to promote S&T research and its applications. They also promote social, economic, and cultural development. China is experiencing unprecedented economic progress. S&T play an important role of it. How did S&T develop in China? How do government officials in China make S&T policies within the context of Chinese nationalism? This article tries to answer these questions from the view of China’s national condition and the cultural history.