Malaria is one of the most significant infectious diseases worldwide. It is endemic mainly in tropical and subtropical regions especially in Africa, Asia and South and Central America. Approximately half of the world's population is at risk of malaria. Most malaria cases and deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa.However, Asia, Latin America, and to a lesser extent the Middle East are also affected. Most deaths occur among children living in Africa where a child dies every minute from malaria. Malaria is caused by the Plasmodium parasite and is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected female mosquito. Placental malaria is the condition when a pregnant woman becomes infected with malaria parasites and these parasites hide in the placenta. This phenomenon can have severe consequences for both the mother and the fetus. This book describes maternal and fetal effects of malaria and malaria treatment during pregnancy in Rwanda and focuses on the effects of current treatment for malaria on the baby and on the effects of malaria on the fetus in utero.