Bile duct malignancies form a small group of malignancies with overall poor prognosis. The assessment and treatment is associated with some special aspects. There are several specific features in behaviour, diagnostic process and treatment of these tumours that make them different from others. Objectives of this work are to review up-to-date state of diagnosing and treatment of bile duct malignancies. Using a cohort of patients and parametric processing, we evaluated treatment efficacy in all subgroups of patients and the impact of the treatment on health-related quality of life. Our hypothesis was that our palliative treatment prolonged patients'' lives with stable or improved quality of life. This book can be useful for medical oncologists, surgeons, gastroenterologists, palliative specialists and others interested in bile duct malignancies.