This book focuses primarily on understanding managerial roles and competencies in human service organizations (HSOs) based on theoretical, practical, ethical, and epistemological perspectives. A wide range of management competencies are identified to help the reader understand the managerial skills and knowledge that human service managers need. The requisite management skills and knowledge for HSOs are addressed throughout the book, identifying internal and external environments for HSOs, including various organizational theories; leadership theories; human resource management skills; finance resource management skills and knowledge; and other current concerns in human service management. This book also reports recent empirical findings regarding the financial dependency between government grants and philanthropic giving to HSOs (known as crowd-out effect). These research estimations could also shed light on financial issues for human service managers as to the knowledge of financial issues necessary when developing fundraising strategies.