Antiretroviral (ARV) drugs have become the cornerstone of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) care and treatment. Its use has lead to marked reduction in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) related morbidity and mortality. There has been limited research regarding on ARV treatment provision in developing countries. This book explains the problems and barriers to providing and expanding ARV programmes in resource poor settings. It is a qualitative study conducting 19 in-depth interviews with health policy makers, ARV service providers and ARV recipients in Nepal. This book offers critical insight into this under researched area and will be beneficial to health researchers, health professionals and policy makers in planning, implementing and managing HIV treatment programme effectively.