This study assessed the effect of various crop and land management practices on production risks under variable rainfall regimes in Eastern Uganda. An approach that integrated both rainfall variability and agricultural production through yield functions was used. In addition, farmers’ perceptions of climate and technology effectiveness were explored as preconditions for adoption of adaptation measures. While a number of farmer-preferred management practices showed significant impacts on mean yield, they did not all show corresponding risk reducing effects on yield. Their effects also varied across agro-ecological zones, thus underscoring the need to develop and disseminate location specific adaptation technologies to reduce production risks, instead of blanket recommendations of similar adaptation measures across locations.