For last several years interferences in mangroves under pressure of urbanization and industrialization along coastal ecosystem, have historically been favored sites for sewage disposal, industrial effluents which have contributed to soil, water and plant contamination. Oil from spills, transport, and refineries along the coastlines further contributes for adverse impacts. This book attempt to identification of factors affecting mangrove ecosystem, identification of affected region by industrial, agricultural and municipal pollution on development and reclamation of mangrove forests and recognition of limitative and influent elements on mangrove ecosystem by estimating of physicochemical parameters of water, metal uptake by soil and plant as well as chemical indicators of petroleum pollution measurement. Along with this, use of isolated fungi for bioremediation was demonstrated. This study gives important information about natural features of mangroves ecosystem along with impact of human activities. This detailed study will be useful for environmentalist and forest protection agencies in proper management and protection measures of the mangroves.