Poor soil fertility in smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa is recognised as a major factor responsible for low capita food production and escalating food insecurity. Understanding manure management practices and farmer perceptions on manure use in smallholder farming systems is important to obtain high quality and quantity manure. A combination of methodologies (literature research, key informant interviews and farmer interviews) was used to study manure management practices and farmer perceptions on manure use. In total, 68 smallholder farmers were randomly selected from 5 sub counties and interviewed. Two key informant interviews were conducted.Declining soil fertility is not static and there are temporal and spatial variations. It is a compounded problem with no one particular solution. The problem requires a multi dimensional approach like integrated use of organic and inorganic fertilizers, promotion of off-farm employment, and population growth control. Under zero-grazing more manure is collected and applied to a number of crops compared to tethered system.This book provides new insights on how declining soil fertility can be handled in a more holistic way.