The importance of indigenous knowledge (IK) in its own right and in combination with other [?western? or ?scientific?] knowledge within individual countries and/or internationally, for addressing complex problems and its potential to contribute to improving the lives of the people has increasingly been recognized. In addition and consequently there is an increased need to preserve and conserve IK as national heritage, and its contribution to enhancing social cohesion. IK is by nature vulnerable. Therefore the urgent need to develop and implement effective systems and processes for its conservation and management cannot be over emphasized. To manage any knowledge and importantly IK requires an understanding of what knowledge exists, who the knowledge holders within a community or communities are, and the state in which such knowledge exists. Knowledge management theories, systems and process provide opportunities for managing all types of knowledge including IK. However, because of its ?specialized? nature further understanding and effective application of knowledge management theories and process, including sharing of national best practices among countries for managing IK.