This book explores the role of indigenous knowledge and practices in the management of marine resources in Jibondo Island in Mafia District-Tanzania. It further highlights on the indigenous systems of resource management that did exist before the establishment of MPAs and identifies the various mechanisms used in the establishment of marine protected areas. It also examines the extent to which the marine protection process affects specific social groups and management structures. This book shows that, the life of the people around the coastal areas is organized around the interactions that exist between the people and their environment and that such people have their own traditional systems of using and managing the resources around them, which are not incorporated in the current system of resource management. The authorities use participation by consultation to hoodwink the populace and make them think they are involved. This results into disagreements and conflicts between the marine park officials and the local people.