Modern economy relies on efficient functioning of the market. Precondition to that is the existence of competition in the market. However, the complexities of modern economic relations that are established on the market, as well as the inclemency of the very nature of competitive struggle impose the need for legal protection of market competition. The government emerges as the regulator of relations, prohibiting such activities of competitors that might distort, limit and prevent free competition and thus cause damage to other participants and the economy as a whole. Bosnia and Herzegovina is in the group of transition countries that do not have a long tradition of market culture, which includes market competition legal protection mechanism. The first segment of the book presents the basic theoretical determinants of competition as an economic and legal category. The second segment of the book analyses the economic system of B&H, legal and institutional elements of market competition legal protection mechanism, and the level of harmonisation with the market competition legal protection mechanism in the EU.