The purpose of this study is to investigate the market structure of the mobile communications industry in Afghanistan by observing the market concentration indices and comparing these indices with the stories on the ground. There are many questions arising in area of mobile market competitiveness and measuring market concentration which are discussed and critically analyzed within this study concerning the question whether competition exists within the mobile communications market in Afghanistan. It also investigates the level of market concentration present in this new branch of industry in Afghanistan and whether there can be more competition in the mobile communications.Furthermore this study will deal with the question how competition in the mobile communications industry has whether helped with the improving or corrupting of the quality of service provided by the several operators in the mobile communications industry. In order this study uses a set of seller concentration measures to investigate the market structure of the mobile telecommunication over past decade. The result of the indices over the last decade will determine the development of industry base over time.