Transformation from subsistence to market-led agriculture is a necessary but elusive goal for many poor countries. Agriculture''s shifting priority within international development agenda further limits the possibility for long term tangible transformation. Rwanda is implementing its Strategic Plan for Agricultural Transformation (PSTA) which it hopes will transform agriculture and lead to pro- poor growth. This book explores the theoretical background of an agricultural transformation linked to pro-poor growth and compares this with Rwanda''s strategy to see what lessons Rwanda is picking and what lessons Rwanda can offer to others with similar goals. Findings from all sources were used to compare the strategy''s macro goals at central level versus implementation realities at decentralized level. The thin line between market support and distortion and the effect of either on productive participation of the poor necessary for pro-poor growth was also anaylzed. Considering Rwanda''s strategy is relatively new and the country is beset by several challenges, findings indicate that Rwanda still provides valuable lessons.