This study is about Nile perch market liberalization and chronic poverty among the fishing communities in Kenya. The study explain how market liberalization contributed to chronic poverty among fishers in Kenya. It analyzes the characteristics of chronically poor households using community participatory approaches. It also explain the drivers and maintainers of chronic poverty among the fishers of lake Victoria. This study is critical in understanding the poverty and methods of poverty reduction among fishing communities in developing countries. it is of great importance for organizations working with fishers to improve the wellbeing such as community organizations, governments and non governmental organization and research institutions dealing with conservation and poverty reduction in developing countries.