The primary purpose of this examination is to provide an empirical evaluation of masculinity, including an in depth look at the way masculinity interacts with specific situational factors in a violent event. Using a sample of newly incarcerated offenders in Nebraska, self-report data about both violent and avoided violent events are examined in relation to masculinity, identity attacks, alcohol use, and third party presence. Little support was found for the proposed relationship between masculinity and violence. Possible reasons for the lack of significant findings are suggested, as well as indications for future research needs in the area of masculinity and violence. Without better measures of both masculinity and appropriate outlets for masculine expression and display, a full understanding of male violence can not occur.