It is well known that many realistic mathematical models of biological systems, such as cell growth, cellular development and differentiation, gene expression, gene regulatory networks, enzyme cascades, synaptic plasticity, aging and population growth need to include stochasticity. These systems are not isolated, but rather subject to intrinsic and extrinsic fluctuations, which leads to a quasi equilibrium state (homeostasis). The natural framework is provided by Markov processes and the Master equation (ME) describes the temporal evolution of the probability of each state, specified by the number of units of each species. The ME is a relevant tool for modeling realistic biological systems and allow also to explore the behavior of open systems. These systems may exhibit not only the classical thermodynamic equilibrium states but also the nonequilibrium steady states (NESS). This thesis deals with biological problems that can be treat with the Master equation and also with its thermodynamic consequences.