Academics across the world continue to debate the topic of Gender Difference in Mathematics Achievement though the gap is minimizing nowadays. There cannot be any single or simple answer to the many complex questions about Gender differences in science, in general and in math, in particular. Providing a single conclusion—such as explaining gender differences in math by knowing about how stereotypes affect performance, or by knowing how self-efficacy and spatial skills influence math achievement—are surely incomplete. Just as there are many related questions about gender differences in the way people think and behave, there are many variables that work together and sometimes interact in a complex and unpredictable ways to present a level of complexity and disparity that is inherent in understanding complicated questions about the way students perform in math and science subjects. This book has focused particularly on two potential factors, cognitive and non-cognitive, that contribute to differential math performance of male and female students in secondary schools. It is presumed that the findings in this book offer some insight in the understanding of the issue.