Arithmetic is the ABC of mathematics. Addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are the basics of mathematics and in one way or another, every equation, graph, and an enormous amount of other things can be broken down into the ABC''s of mathematics. Mathematics is a language, and these basis operations are its alphabets. Much of the problems of failure of students in mathematics, are due to lack of their mastery of the basic operations. Poor achievement on basic arithmetic skills leads to the formation of negative attitude towards mathematics. Improvement in basic arithmetic skills will result in improvement in mathematics achievement. There is a vertical relationship between and among the concepts of mathematics and so the authors feel that there is a need to identify the weaknesses in mathematics and provide timely remedy which will help in improving the quality in mathematics education. The authors of this book have highlighted the major weaknesses found in mathematics among secondary school students.