This is a study of matrilineality and the position of women in Kunama, an agricultural society, residing in Northwestern part of the country, the National Regional State of Tigray. In Ethiopia, the matrilineal descent system is found only among the Kunama. This book is an attempt to examine the position of women among the matrilineal Kunama society. It outlines the contribution of descent, inheritance and residence pattern to the position of women. It also addresses the issue of change in the position of women because of the long standing contact with their neighbors, the patrilineal and christian Tigrawot.