The bench mark to measure potential output is the data envelopment frontier determined by the best practice production units, which in the language of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) are called Decision Making Units (DMU’s).In this book Chapter-I contains about the measurement of technical change in terms of total factor productivity growth and the contribution inputs growth to output growth. Chapter-II deals three important approaches namely, Parametric, Non-Parametric and Accounting approaches have been discussed for the measurement of technical change and technical progress. Chpater-III proposes some theoretical methods to decompose the Malmquist total factor productivity index into different efficiency changes. Chapter-IV presents the empirical investigation regarding the present research study. The various efficiency changes such as pure technical, output technical, scale efficiency changes have been completed for different states in India for the study periods . Chpater-V depicts the summary of results and important conclusions of the present work finaly selected references regarding present book have been given under a separate title “Bibliography”.