This book discuss several methods to measure the productivity and the efficiency: recent improvements are discussed and two applications are reported. The first application analyzes the performance of the Italian airline company, Alitalia, after the deregulation in the air transport industry in the European Union. Performance of airline is analyzed using Tornqvist indices. examines the operational and financial performance in terms of technical efficiency of a sample of Italian airports, within the new liberalization and privatization context over the period 2000-2004. Robust non parametric estimation method, based on bootstrapping is used to handle the main issues in the airports’ performance evaluation.