There has been a serious debate across the globe as to which language/s should be used as medium of instruction and at which level/s of the school system. At independence, the new Government of Zambia adopted English, the language of the former colonial masters, to be the sole medium of instruction from grade 1 to tertiary levels of education. This book investigates the attitude of the Zambian parents and teachers towards the use of English as medium of instruction at lower basic level of education. It further explores the historical development of medium of instruction from the pre-colonial period to date. Additionally, the book looks at studies on medium of instruction in Africa and other parts of the world. The author uses the findings of these studies as a springboard for recommending the use of both English and a dominant local language as medium of instruction at lower basic level of education. The book will be very helpful to various policy makers within the Ministry of Education for it will help them to consider revising the current language in education policy so as to include the use of mother tongue as medium of instruction at lower basic level of education.