This book describes the results of a continuous author effort to collect, preserve, conserve and utilize the Egyptian melon genetic resources started from 1993 up to now. Chapter 2 and 3 are a pre- PhD studies, meanwhile Chapter4 is my PhD Thesis. However chapter 5, 6 and 7 are considering a post- PhD studies. Generally the book material comes out from extracting PhD Thesis plus 10 published papers, published from 1998 up to 2011. Students, researchers and breeders could find very valuable information about Egyptian melon gene resources and other melon botanical varieties. Melon reactions against different races (0, 1, 2, 1,2y) of fusarium wilt pathogen are found in Chapter 2 of the book. However the genetic behaviour of field tolerance to gummy stem blight symptoms "sudden wilt" during the fruit maturity period based on Line X Tester analysis is found in chapter 7. Moreover valuable information about melon conventional breeding techniques(inbreeding, selection, crossing, field performance and off spring commercial evaluation) are presented in Chapter 3, 4 and 4. In addition valuable information about Egyptian consumers' preference of melon fruit are presented in chapter 5 and 6.