Mental health is an integral component of health that helps a person to realize his or her own relational abilities using the psychomotor, affective and cognitive domains. A high prevalence of mental disorders is seen in old age and predominant among these is depression. The community-based mental health studies have revealed that the point prevalence of depressive disorders among the geriatric population in India varies between 13 and 25 per cent. Another common mental health problem of the elderly is dementia. The total prevalence of dementia rises sharply above age 75. Individuals with dementia have reduced survival. The prevalence of cognitive impairment has been estimated between 11% (cognitive impairment- no dementia: ages 65-74) and 98% (memory impairment on at least one objective test). The financial burden including medications, care giving and institutional care; increases with the severity. This book explores the mental health status of the elderly Indian population. It also evaluates the National Mental Health Programme in India and identifies the scope of improvement in the mental health care delivery systems for the elderly.