In an attempt to bring discussions about West Papua back to the fore this project first argues that self- determination has never been realized in West Papua, thus making the United Nations'' attempt at ending colonialism there an abject failure. This is shown by recounting the history of the half-island and the means by which it was colonized by the Dutch and then forcefully re-colonized by the Indonesian state. We then look forward to ways that the fullest measure of self-determination can occur, giving the indigenous West Papuans the opportunity to choose any option of decolonization for their future, be it integration, independence, or some other status. Other status options include the possible formation of non-state entities or the complete withdrawal from the global system. This challenge to Western assumptions and regulations regarding decolonization is important as West Papua is a prime example where simply removing the colonizer and establishing a new state will not necessarily satisfy indigenous demands for decolinzation.