The major means of economic growth, industrial effectiveness and efficiency in production, are measured in terms of maximum possible real output from given amount of inputs. Technical and allocative efficiencies in the use of inputs results in cost efficiency. Ultimately, technical and allocative efficiencies result in profit maximization. To generate empirically credible results that have scientific and policy merits, I implemented parametric and nonparametric methods jointly. Indeed, the results were found to be empirically sound. First, the Canadian forest sector’s economic profile; the rationale for the study; and the hypothesis and the guiding-research questions, classified under three major themes, are discussed in Chapter 1, while Chapter 2 provides the theoretical foundations. The nonparametric and parametric methods and the database are detailed in Chapters 3 and 4, respectively. Chapters 5 and 6, discuss the empirical. Summary of results and conclusions are given in Chapters 7 and 8, respectively. Undergraduate and graduate teachers of microeconomics, policy makers, and executives will find the book useful.