Scheduling problems occur in all economic domains from computer engineering to manufacturing techniques. These problems are generally defined as decision making problems with the aim of optimizing one or more scheduling criteria. Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem (FJSSP) is an extension of the classical job shop scheduling problem which allows an operation to be processed by any machine from a given set. It is more complex than job shop scheduling problem, because of the additional need to determine the assignment of operations to machines. FJSSP is very important in both fields of production management and combinatorial optimization. Owing to the high computational complexity, it is quite difficult to achieve an optimal solution with the traditional techniques. In this connection, suitable algorithms (or) techniques are required to solve the FJSSP. This book provides wide knowledge in the metaheuristics with scheduling field.